Authors are experts in the field. They have earned higher degrees, such as a PhD, and usually are affiliated with a think tank or higher ed. institution. Contact information and institutional affiliation are provided.
The vocabulary used is specialized and sophisticated. It usually takes more than one reading to understand the content.
Readers are expected to be knowledgeable in the field.
The information is reliable. It has gone through the peer review process.
Articles are lengthy and in-depth. There is usually an abstract, a literature review, and references.
Unless the research requires colored photographs and illustrations, the articles generally contain tables and charts and black and white photographs.
Advertisements are limited to research oriented subjects such as forthcoming conferences, books, and journals.
**Book reviews generally are not peer reviewed.